Comforting can allow you to raise your loyalty, raise your population, etc. To use comforting you click on your town hall and select the comforting button. There are 4 types of comforting to choose from. You can only do one comforting at a time. Comforting also has a 15 minute timer. Every 15 minutes the timer is reset and you can do comforting again.
More often than not you will use “disaster relief” to raise your loyalty or “population raising” to raise your population total temporarily.
For example you can train as many troops as you have “idle population”. I may train all the troops possible, then use population raising to raise my population a little more, then train another batch of troops.