Currently the comforting method “population raising” seems to be broken. It says it will take 10 times more food than it actually does. If it says it will require 122k food to raise your population it will only use 12.2 k food. I don’t know if this is a bug or not but I use this a lot when starting out with a new city. You can for example train your maximum number of troops, then use population raising to raise your population. As soon as you raise your population again you can schedule more troops to be trained. (BTW – Is this an exploit? I submitted a bug report just in case it is a bug. That way they can’t accuse me of exploiting something.)
Comforting can allow you to raise your loyalty, raise your population, etc. To use comforting you click on your town hall and select the comforting button. There are 4 types of comforting to choose from. You can only do one comforting at a time. Comforting also has a 15 minute timer. Every 15 minutes the timer is reset and you can do comforting again.
More often than not you will use “disaster relief” to raise your loyalty or “population raising” to raise your population total temporarily.
For example you can train as many troops as you have “idle population”. I may train all the troops possible, then use population raising to raise my population a little more, then train another batch of troops.